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AUSTRIAN TRADITIONS

EXPLAINED: What is the Austrian National Day and how is it celebrated?

Austria celebrates its national holiday on October 26th. Aside from getting the day off work, how did it start and what is there to do on National Day?

EXPLAINED: What is the Austrian National Day and how is it celebrated?

October 26th is a national holiday in Austria, but not just any holiday – it is literally “the” National Holiday, or “der Nationalfeiertag” in German. Internationally, it is known as Austria National Day.

The date celebrates October 26th 1955, when Austria signed its Declaration of Perpetual Neutrality and the last of the allied troops left the country a decade after the end of the Second World War.

Austria’s neutrality

After the end of the Second World War, Austria was jointly occupied by the Allied forces of France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union. While Austrians welcomed the end of the war, they grew tired of the Allied occupation over time. 

The Austrian parliament had little control over significant affairs because the Allied Control Council could veto any political or legislative action by the elected parliament. 

READ ALSO: ‘No country is an island’: Is it time Austria abandoned neutrality?

That changed in 1955 when the Austrian State Treaty was signed, handing the country’s power back over to Austria, and Austria committed to its “perpetual neutrality” – the commitment was fundamental to the Soviet Union in the Cold War context.

The neutrality document states: “For the purpose of the permanent assertion of its independence externally and for the purpose of the inviolability of its territory, Austria freely declares its perpetual neutrality. Austria will maintain and defend this with all means at its disposal.” 

How do Austrians celebrate National Day?

Other than the hoisting of what feels like 100 flags for every resident, the Federal Government celebrates the day with a number of events. 

The president addresses the nation in a TV address, honouring the war resistance victims and laying a wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. This is also the day when new recruits of the Austrian Armed Forces are sworn in. 

READ ALSO: EXPLAINED: How does Austria’s mandatory military service work?

In 2022, the events, which were significantly scaled back during the coronavirus pandemic, are back – and big. The program has a performance show, helicopters, tanks and a flight simulator in the military parade. 

During the large-scale swearing-in ceremony for new army recruits at Heldenplatz, there will be a flyover with two Eurofighters and a C-130 Hercules jet. In addition, the Austrian Armed Forces present themselves at the Am Hof (foreign missions) and Burgtheater (disaster relief). 

In addition, there is a “Security Festival” taking place at the Rathausplatz. 

The celebration of the Armed Forces will be particularly marked by the Russian invasion of Ukraine. “We are living in a turning point in time”, said Defence Minister Klaudia Tanner (ÖVP) in a press statement.

She said: “Russia’s attack on Ukraine has shocked and affected us all. War has returned to Europe. Peace can no longer be taken for granted in Europe”.

READ ALSO: EXPLAINED: The history behind Austria’s neutrality

All the events and special videos will be broadcast on Austria’s public television ORF.

Free admission to museums on National Day

The National Day offers the opportunity to visit many museums with free admission: the Austrian National Library (ÖNB) facilities, for example, have a unique programme in place. In addition, several other federal museums and institutions are open to the public.

The museums of the Graz Universal Museum Joanneum, as well as the Graz Museum, Vorarlberg Museum and 44 museums and collections in Burgenland, are also open to the public free of charge.

READ ALSO: EXPLAINED: Why isn’t Austria in NATO?

There are also musical events, such as the Vienna Johann Strauss Orchester programme, playing music by Johann Strauss (son), Josef Strauss and Franz Lehár to celebrate the coming into force of Austrian neutrality.

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AUSTRIAN TRADITIONS

Austrian Christmas traditions: The festive dates you need to know

Catholics celebrate the first Sunday of Advent this weekend, and Austrians are ready for the season with crowns, demon-like creatures lurking, and a winged baby that brings children toys.

Austrian Christmas traditions: The festive dates you need to know

The Christmas season is definitely full of events in Austria, a country where 55.2 percent of the population is Roman Catholic, according to Statistik Austria data from 2021. The season starts early, as Christmas markets open by mid-November, and lasts until January 6th, when Austrians traditionally bring down their season decorations.

There are also many specific dates and local traditions that can seem endearing or absolutely terrifying. For example, in early December, a nice man with a white beard brings tangerines and chocolates to good children. 

But before he does, his “assistant”, a nightmarish creature with horns and carrying around loud chains named Krampus, goes to the houses of children who misbehave.

READ ALSO: IN PICTURES: A guide to the main Christmas Markets in Austria

Christmas markets are open to all from mid (sometimes early) November, and Austrians traditionally flock to the spots for their yearly share of glühwein, punsch and typical food. The cities also light up with Christmas lights and decorations, and the season is one of the best for Austrian tourism, especially in the capital Vienna. You can see HERE a list of all the Viennese Christmas markets in 2022.

Don’t want to miss out on any traditions? Here are the dates for the Austrian Christmas season:

Advent Sundays (November 27th)

The fourth Sunday before Christmas is also known as the first Advent Sunday – it starts the “season of Advent” (or the season of “Arrival”) and many Austrian Christmas traditions.

This year, the first Advent Sunday is on November 27th.

Austrians will typically celebrate by baking Christmas biscuits and cookies, putting up some decorations and, most notably, preparing an Advent wreath (Adventkranz) that will hold the four candles of Advent. 

Then, every Sunday until Christmas, a new candle will be lit, counting down the time until Christmas. Some families will join in a celebratory meal and might even sing carols (including Silent Night which is actually Austrian).

Adventskalender (December 1st)

Another way of counting down the days until Christmas is with the traditional Adventskalender – those can start on the first Sunday of Advent. However, the commercial ones are typically from December 1st until December 25th.

There are countless calendars for sale and usually, for each day, the person gets a typical “present” that the person receives. Usually, it’s chocolates or sweets (more religious ones will contain a bible verse or a prayer), but nowadays, you can find Adventskalender of almost any theme – including for dogs.

READ ALSO: Eight unmissable Christmas experiences in Austria

Barbarazweig (December 4th)

On December 4th, Austrians celebrate St Barbara’s Day or Barbaratag. In 2022, the date also falls on an Advent Sunday. 

For Barbaratag, some people in Austria will cut small twigs and sticks from cherry trees or forsythias to decorate a vase at home. There is a superstition that if the twig blossoms before Christmas, the family will have good luck or someone will get married. 

READ ALSO: Reader question: Is travelling to Austria this winter worth it?

Participants wearing masks featuring the character of “Krampus”, a half-goat, half-demon figure punishing misbehaving children during the Christmas season. (Photo by Peter Kneffel / dpa / AFP)

Krampus (December 5th)

This might be one of the most unusual and surprising traditions (if you have never seen it before, that is). On December 5th, a horned, scary anthropomorphic devil creature visits the homes of Austrians and scares children who weren’t good kids during the year. They are also said to scare away the dark spirits of winter and are a very traditional part of local folk customs.

There are many Krampuslaufen (a sort of Krampus parade) in Austria – not all on December 5th. In them, people dress up as the demonic entity with chains and torches. 

READ ALSO: German Advent word of the day: Der Krampus

Nikolaus

Krampus is actually a companion to the much more friendly St. Nicholas, an entity that looks quite a lot like Santa Claus. 

St. Nicholas comes during the night of the 5th to 6th of December and rewards the well-behaved children with tangerines, sweets and peanuts. This is why your Austrian neighbours might leave their boots outside on that evening – Nikolaus fills them up with gifts and sweets. 

He has a long white beard and wears a religious vestment that is white and red, similar to a bishop’s vest.

READ ALSO: Posting Christmas presents from Austria? Here’s what you need to know

Christmas Eve and Christkind (December 24th)

If you think a lot has happened already, then imagine Christmas Eve. This is when the actual celebrations happen (not on the 25th). The shops will close early, and families will gather to decorate the Christmas tree – yes, it’s not uncommon for Austrians to follow this tradition of only decorating the tree on December 24th.

They also meet for Christmas eve dinner, which can vary greatly depending on family traditions and Austrian regions. From raclette to roasted geese or cold meats, much can be served during the evening. 

Another thing that might sound strange to foreigners is that there is no Santa Claus or Father Christmas in Austria. Instead, it is the “Christkind” (literally Christ Child, or baby Jesus) who brings the presents on Christmas eve.

READ ALSO: Where to find international food in Austria this Christmas

He looks much like a Cherubin and the children are told that he brings the presents, rings a bell and lights up the Christmas tree. 

The whole experience may seem curious to those watching for the first time: kids are lured into a separate room and the adults run to get gifts from the secret hiding places, set up the scene, turn on the tree lights and turn off other lights. Some then ring a small bell and the children are surprised to learn that they barely missed the winged baby who brought all the gifts.  

Christmas Day and St. Stephen’s Day (December 25th and 26th)

Though the evening before Christmas is the most important, Austrians continue to meet up during the next day and the 26th. 

Lunches and dinners are shared with loved ones and there is some more gift exchanging during those days. If they live in the mountains, they might go skiing on Christmas Day and later, as well.

READ ALSO: How to save money and still go skiing in Austria

Three wise men tree ornament

Epiphany is when the three wise men find Jesus in the stable. Photo by Robert Thiemann on Unsplash

Three Wise Kings Day (January 6th)

Finally, the Christmas tree and the decorations are left until January 6th. In Catholic belief, this is when the three wise kings came to visit baby Jesus with presents. 

Kaspar, Melchior and Balthazar might literally visit Austrian homes. They then leave their mark: their initials and the year written in chalk above the house door, the K + M + B sign that is often seen by the doors of people in Austria.

January 6th is also Christmas eve for Orthodox believers and is celebrated by many people in Austria.

Austria is a small but very diverse country with countless traditions, especially during Christmas time. Did we miss your favourite one? Let us know by emailing us at [email protected] or leaving a comment.

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