Russia on Tuesday said the diplomats were being expelled as they had suddenly been declared undesirable.
The expulsions were in direct retaliation to the expulsion of several Russian diplomats from European countries as a result of the Ukraine invasion.
In addition to the four Austria diplomats expelled on Tuesday, 21 from Belgium and 15 from Russia have also been expelled.
Those expelled have been given two weeks to leave Russia.
Under Article 9 of the Vienna Convention, countries can expel diplomats without explaining their decision.
In early April, Austria backtracked on a recent promise not to exclude Russian diplomats on the basis of neutrality, declaring four Russian representatives as “personae non gratae”.
A statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs said that the reason for the move was “the fact that their activities have not been in accordance with their diplomatic status”.
According to the Ministry, those expelled had taken actions in contravention with the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, the primary legal instrument which governs diplomatic relations between countries.
In addition to Austria, Germany, France, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Slovakia, Poland, Netherlands, Italy and several other countries have expelled Russian diplomats since the beginning of the Russian invasion of Ukraine.
Austria has already stated that its “perpetually neutral” status was only regarding military activities. However, it would not stay neutral when it comes to human rights, as reported.