ANALYSIS: The Kurz corruption scandal exposes Austria’s press freedom problems

The corruption scandal that recently forced Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz to leave his post has exposed the 'open secret' of unhealthy ties between politicians, polling companies and the media, with critics renewing calls for reform.

Austrian newspapers about Sebastian Kurz
The Austrian press is largely dependent on state funding, creating a risk that government ad spending could influence coverage, say critics. Photo: Joe Klamar/AFP

The scandal erupted this month when prosecutors raided locations including the chancellory and the finance ministry.

They are currently probing allegations that Kurz’s inner circle used public money to pay for polls skewed to boost his image. Prosecutors also suspect that in return for running the surveys, and other fawning coverage of Kurz, a major tabloid received lucrative public adverts.

Kurz and all those under investigation deny any wrong-doing. But the fact that government adverts are used as a means of influencing the press has long been an “open secret”, says Yilmaz Gulum, a political journalist with public broadcaster ORF.

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In the small EU member state of 8.9 million people, large swathes of the press have become reliant on public money as “their economic model of print media has been destabilized by the internet”, says Fritz Hausjell, deputy head of  the media and communications department at the University of Vienna.

By far and away the largest source of public funds has been ad spending by regional and national government, which has grown to €220 million ($256 million) a year.

However, many official ads seem to have little informational content and are used instead to show beaming ministers or mayors wishing citizens a “Merry Christmas” or “sunny summer”.

According to media expert Andy Kaltenbrunner from the University of Salzburg, the Österreich and Heute freesheet tabloids are the most dependent on government funds, accounting for 20-40 percent of their revenues. Gulum says the way the ads are placed across the sector amounts to “market distortion” with tabloids receiving much higher sums than the broadsheets, some of which are more critical of the government.

Former Foreign Minister Karin Kneissl said in May this year that when she took office in 2017 and made huge cuts to the ministry’s ad budget “many were horrified”. The aim of ad spending was generally seen as “buying goodwill in press coverage,” she explained to a parliamentary committee investigating corruption.

Huasjell points out that the system can be used to exercise influence in both directions. Tabloids like Oesterreich can exert pressure on government by saying: “If you don’t buy lots of ads, then we’ll take you down or disregard you.”

Henrike Brandstötter, an MP for the opposition liberal Neos party, says the upshot of the system is that “with some media (the audience) can’t have confidence that what’s written is always correct”.

“That’s endangering democracy,” she says.

Sebastian Kurz is surrounded by media as he arrives to attend the parliamentary session at the Austrian Parliament in Vienna, Austria, on October 14th. Photo: Joe Klamar/AFP

The advertising issue is one reason Austria has slid 10 places down the press freedom rankings compiled by the Reporters Without Borders (RSF) pressure group since 2015. In its latest report on Austria, RSF said that despite the entry of the Greens into government — “a party that claims to respect the highest press freedom standards” — there has been little progress on “press financing reform”.

The press is therefore likely to remain “dependent on state funding for some time”, it added.

Brandstötter sees the solution lies in capping the amount the government spends on ads and instead upping the amount of direct public subsidy. Advocates of this route say subsidies would be less liable to manipulation by the government of the day as they would be shared more equitably across the sector and on a more stable basis.

The other aspect of the media landscape cast in a dubious light by the latest scandal is polling. Kurz’s aides are suspected of commissioning polls which were massaged in order to smooth his path to the chancellery. Brandstötter calls them a “manipulation of public opinion”.

The polling company that carried them out was not a member of the polling industry association VdMI because it didn’t meet the group’s quality control standards. These include a minimum of 800 respondents per survey and avoiding using online-only polls.

Christoph Hofinger of the SORA polling institute — one of the country’s most respected — called for improvements in his field.

“When polls appear that aren’t up to standard, they shouldn’t be used in public debate,” he said.

By Blaise Bauquelin

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Reader question: Can I vote in Austria’s presidential elections?

On October 9th, Austria will vote to elect a new president, but who can vote in these national elections?

Reader question: Can I vote in Austria's presidential elections?

Austria’s presidential election will take place on October 9th, with seven candidates vying to take over at the Hofburg – the official workplace of the country’s president.

According to opinion polls, the favourite to win is the current president Alexander Van der Bellen, who is running for reelection.

READ ALSO: Austrian presidential elections: Who are the seven candidates?

A presidential candidate must be an Austrian citizen, be eligible to vote in the National Assembly and be at least 35 years old on election day.

Members of ruling dynasties or families that reigned in the past are not eligible to run in the presidential election. This is to avoid a return to monarchy in Austria via the role of the Federal President.

Who can vote in these elections?

The only people allowed to vote in Austrian federal elections are Austrian citizens aged 16 or above.

That means foreigners – even those born and raised in Austria, are not entitled to choose a new president. Unless, of course, they take up Austrian citizenship (usually giving up their original citizenship).

Since Austria has a large proportion of foreigners in the population, many people will not be able to vote in these elections.

READ ALSO: ‘I pay taxes in Austria’: Anger as foreigners barred from Vienna council vote

In fact, some 18 percent of residents (or 1.4 million people) in Austria over the age of 16 do not have the right to vote because they are not citizens, with the highest concentration of ineligible people in Vienna, Innsbruck and Salzburg.

In comparison, 20 years ago, Austria had just 580,000 people without the right to vote.

Statistics Austria data evaluated by the APA shows that around 30 percent of the voting-age population in Vienna, Innsbruck and Salzburg are not entitled to vote. In Linz and Graz, it is about 25 percent.

READ ALSO: EXPLAINED: How does Austria’s presidential election work?

However, there are some smaller communities in Austria where the number of people without the right to vote is even higher.

In Jungholz in Tyrol, 66 percent of the population are not eligible, followed by 51 percent in Mittelberg in Vorarlberg. Kittsee in Burgenland and Wolfsthal in Lower Austria also have high proportions of Slovakian residents who cannot vote.

Austrian citizenship

Currently, in Austria, if someone wants to take up citizenship via naturalisation, they must undergo an extensive and expensive process and fulfil specific criteria.

Generally, there needs to be at least ten years of lawful and uninterrupted residence in Austria. But there are exceptions for those with citizenship of an EU or EEA country, those born in Austria, or married to an Austrian, for example.

READ ALSO: Could Austria change the rules around citizenship?

The main hurdles, however, include having to give up any other citizenships, as Austria doesn’t allow for dual citizenship in naturalisation cases with few exceptions, and the payment of a high fee, which depends on the municipality, but could reach thousands of euros.

And though the topic of easing the requirements has come up several times in Austria, the country doesn’t seem any closer to changing its citizenship laws.

READ ALSO: EXPLAINED: Where in Europe can non-EU foreigners vote in local elections?