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How does childcare work in Austria?

Childcare can be a delicate topic and often varies from country to country. Here’s how the system works in Austria.

Children playing at nursery
Childcare provision in Austria depends on which region you're in and the age of your child. Photo: Pavel Danilyuk/Pexels

Childcare in Austria hit the headlines recently after kindergarten staff in Vienna staged a protest to demand better conditions and more staff for facilities.

This follows a recent report by research institute Eco Austria that claims many parents in Austria are unable to work full time and the current childcare provision falls short of the Barcelona target.

The Barcelona target was agreed by EU leaders in 2002 to ensure the development of childcare facilities in Europe, with a focus on sustainable and inclusive growth.

It states that childcare should be provided for 90 percent of children between the age of three and the mandatory school age (six-years-old in Austria), and for 33 percent of children under the age of three.

The latest figures by Statistics Austria show that childcare provision for children under the age of three is currently at 27.6 percent in Austria – more than five percent below the Barcelona target.

Despite the recent negative press coverage though, childcare in Austria is still highly rated among international residents – especially when compared to countries like the UK and the US.

Here’s what you need to know about childcare in Austria.

How does the childcare system work?

In Austria, there are different types of care available before children reach mandatory school age, including nurseries for those under the age of three, kindergartens up to the age of six and workplace and university childcare centres.

FOR MEMBERS: Familienbeihilfe: What you need to know about Austria’s child support benefits

Facilities are run privately or funded by the government and the costs can vary. The family’s income and the number of childcare hours are taken into account when calculating fees.

Parents usually have to register for places in advance.

Nurseries for babies and toddlers

In many parts of Austria, childcare for babies and toddlers up to the age of three takes place at day nurseries (kinderkrippen).

The cost and type of service available depends on the province and more details can be found at the Austrian Federal Government website.

But in Vienna, childcare for babies and toddlers is provided at both kindergartens and private nurseries with costs subsidized by the City of Vienna.

For children under 3.5-years-old in Vienna, parents receive up to €624.72 per month towards childcare.

For children aged between 3.5 years and six, there is a subsidy up to €423.31 per month for all-day care, €349.34 for part time and €252.29 for half-day. The money is paid directly from the government to the care provider.

The City of Vienna recommends parents should register for a place at a publicly-funded kindergarten in November or December for enrolment in the following year.

Kindergarten

The age when a child can be sent to a publicly-funded kindergarten depends on the province.

For example, kindergarten in Vienna is available to children up to six years of age and a similar system is in place in Burgenland and Carinthia.

In Tyrol however, kindergarten starts when children are four with an allowance of a half-day (20 hours a week without lunch) provided by the government for free. This is the minimum amount of free childcare that a state government has to provide.

READ MORE: Vienna kindergartens partially closed as staff protest work conditions

Whereas in Upper Austria and Lower Austria, a half-day of free kindergarten starts at 2.5-years-old. 

Private kindergartens are available across the country but they are not free and the costs vary depending on the operator.

A half-day of kindergarten attendance every day from Monday to Friday is mandatory for all children in Austria from the age of five.

How does childcare in Austria compare to other countries?

In the UK, childcare is less structured than Austria with varying levels of financial support depending on whether a family meets the eligibility criteria.

For example, parents in England can access up to 15 hours of free childcare each week for children from the age of two. Working families with children aged three to four can access 30 hours of free childcare a week.

In Germany, the cost of daycare (Kita) depends on where a family lives. Kita is free for all children from birth in Berlin and Hamburg, but state-run kindergartens in Munich cost between €70 and €120 a month, with private centres charging up to €200.

In the US, parents spend an average of $8,355 (approximately €7,224) on childcare for each child, according to a recent CNBC article

However, an enhanced tax credit system is currently in operation for 2021 and President Biden is calling for legislation to further help families with childcare costs.

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MONEY

EXPLAINED: How to make a will in Austria

Making a will can be a daunting process, especially when living overseas. The Local spoke with lawyer Maximilian Harnoncourt to understand more about getting your affairs in order as an international resident in Austria. Here's what you need to know.

EXPLAINED: How to make a will in Austria

Making a will in Austria

Under Austrian law, a will is a legal document that states who should inherit which assets when someone dies.

According to the legal website Erbrecht-ABC, the easiest way to make a will is for someone to write it themselves by hand and then sign it. This is known as eigenhändiges Testament and can be done without the presence of a notary, lawyer or witness.

A will can also be typed (fremdhändiges Testament) but still has to contain, “This is my last will and testament” in handwriting. 

READ ALSO: EXPLAINED: Property buying rules for international residents in Austria

In the case of a typed will, the law states it must be witnessed by three people who then sign the document.

Then there are notarial or judicial wills, although these types of will are rare. 

Any special process to be aware of?

Lawyer Maximilian Harnoncourt, from Schneider & Schneider Rechtsanwalts, said that anyone making a will in Austria should formally register it with a notary or lawyer so that it can be submitted to the Austrian Central Register of Wills

Harnoncourt told The Local: “The advantage of going to a lawyer or a notary is that professionals will make sure that the formal requirements are met and that your will is valid.

“Since lawyers and notaries are obliged to record the will in a register, you have the guarantee that the will is actually taken into account after your death.”

However, it’s worth noting that the Central Register of Wills does not contain actual wills. Instead, a lawyer submits an official record of the creation and filing of the will to ensure that when someone dies, the will can be found.

READ NEXT: Visas and residency permits: How to move to Austria and stay long-term

Can foreigners make a will in Austria?

Under Austrian law, anyone living in the country (even international residents) can make a will.

Harnoncourt said: “In principle, people living in Austria can make a will according to Austrian laws and are treated the same as Austrians.”

But the validity of an Austrian will overseas depends on where the person was living when they died or if there are additional assets to be considered, as Harnoncourt explains.

He said: “Whether a will is valid abroad can only be determined on a case-by-case basis. The question is mostly relevant if you move to another country or if there are assets in another country.

“In principle, in the EU (there are special rules for Denmark and Ireland), a will is also valid in another EU country if it is valid according to the regulations of the country in which it was made.

last will and testament

(Photo by Melinda Gimpel on Unsplash)

“However, you should always seek advice from a lawyer if you have significant assets abroad or if you intend to move your residence to a non-EU country.”

So, is it actually worthwhile for international residents to make a will in Austria?

Harnoncourt says yes – especially if you want to distribute your estate differently to Austrian inheritance laws (more on that below), or if there are special instructions.

He said: “As an international resident you can choose whether Austrian laws or the laws of your citizenship shall apply. For example, to avoid mandatory portions going to children under Austrian laws.”

FOR MEMBERS: Everything you need to know about Austrian inheritance laws

What is Austria’s inheritance law?

In Austria, if a will is not made, the entire estate will go to the heirs due to Austrian succession of inheritance laws.

This means the children (or grandchildren) will inherit two thirds of an estate, while the spouse is eligible for one third. Since 2017, parents are no longer included in forced heirship (known as Pflichtteilsrecht) in Austria.

If there are no heirs or life partner, then the Federal Government handles the estate of the deceased.

Additionally, there is no inheritance tax in Austria, but there is a real estate transfer tax, which is 3.5 percent of the purchase price of a property.

How much does it cost to make a will?

As with most things related to law, making a will is not free. But the costs can vary depending on the type of will made and whether you need legal advice.

The Austrian federal government website states there is a one-time fee of between €300 to €500 to hire a notary and register a will. This covers the cost of advice, professional drafting, filing and registration in the Central Register of Wills.

The cost of filing a will that is handwritten without any legal advice is around €100, plus expenses and sales tax.

The cost of hiring a lawyer to handle a will can vary and there will still be a one-time fee to submit the will into the Central Register of Wills.

Useful vocabulary

Will – das Testament

Inheritance – das Erbe

Notary – der Notar

Lawyer – der Rechtsanwalt

Useful links

Find a notary in Austria at notar.at.

Austrian Bar Association (Österreichischer Rechtsanwaltskammertag)

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