FFP2 masks will now be required in all retail shops and supermarkets, along with public transport throughout Austria.
Long-distance trains will also require FFP2 masks, as will doctors surgeries, airports and aeroplanes.
Anyone who fails to wear a mask in a long-distance train in Austria will risk a fine of 40 euros.
Previously, cotton masks or scarves were sufficient to satisfy the regulation.
Austria put in place a range of stricter rules after a meeting on January 17th, including extending the lockdown until February 7th.
While FFP2 masks are more expensive than standard medical masks, the government has promised that they will be available to Austrians at cost price.
People on low incomes would be entitled to the masks for free, a government spokesperson said.
Supermarkets Lidl, Spar and Rewe told APA on Sunday that they would be selling the masks at cost price – although they were unable to confirm the exact costs of the masks on Sunday.
A spokesperson from Rewe told Der Standard that the masks would be offered “as cheaply as possible”.
The retailers also indicated that there would be no issues with supply, even as demand is set to spike as a result of the new law.
“Any mouth and nose protection is good, but the FFP2 mask is massively better,” said Health Minister Rudolf Anschober (Greens) on Sunday.
FFP2 masks offer better protection against the coronavirus and other pathogens, with up to 94 percent of aerosols filtered out.