The man, a 29-year-old asylum seeker from Afghanistan, was arrested in Salzburg and charged with wilful exposure to a communicable disease.
The offence carries a maximum jail term of three years.
The man, who has already served several weeks in custody, is required to serve one month of the seven month sentence and is expected to be released on Friday on probation.
The public prosecutor is considering appealing the sentence for being too lenient, reports local media.
The man was caught by German border guards having travelled across Lower Austria, Upper Austria and Salzburg.
He told border guards he wanted to travel to Berlin to see his brother.
The man had a confirmed Covid-19 infection and had been ordered to quarantine.
The hearing is the first of its kind in Salzburg, but there have been prosecutions in Carinthia and Upper Austria.