Vienna ‘world’s most liveable city’ for second year in a row

The Austrian capital Vienna has retained its ranking as the world's most liveable city, according to an annual report from the Economist.

Vienna 'world's most liveable city' for second year in a row
Vienna's Heldenplatz (Square of Heroes). Photo: DPA

For the second year running, Vienna has been named the World’s Most Liveable City in a report by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). The Austrian capital came in ahead of the Australian city Melbourne, which held the title for seven years before losing out to Vienna in 2018.

A city’s liveability is determined by a range of factors, including living standards, crime, transport infrastructure, access to education and healthcare, as well as political and economic stability, with the EIU scoring 140 cities out of 100.

Vienna maintained last year’s winning score of 99.1 points thanks to its convenient public transport, refreshing Alpine tap water and varied cultural life. This was reflected in another survey, with HR consulting firm Mercer naming Vienna the city with the highest quality of living for the 10th time in a row.

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Europe is home to eight of the EIU's 20 most liveable cities, with cities in Japan, Australia, New Zealand and Canada making up the rest. Take a look at the five highest ranking and lowest ranking cities.

The most liveable cities:

1. Vienna, Austria

2. Melbourne, Australia

3. Sydney, Australia

4. Osaka, Japan

5. Calgary, Canada

The least liveable cities:

136. Karachi, Pakistan

137. Tripoli, Libya

138. Dhaka, Bangladesh

139. Lagos, Nigeria

140. Damascus, Syria

London and New York missed out on a place in the Top 20, coming in at 48th and 58th respectively, due to overstretched infrastructure and the perceived risk of crime and terrorism. The French capital Paris fell out of the Top 20 this year, dropping from 19th to 25th, following the anti-government “yellow vest” protests.

In a press release, the EIU stated “Western Europe and North America continue to be the most liveable regions in the world.” Though Agathe Demarais of the EIU pointed out, “we expect problems relating to climate change to put increasing pressure on liveability scores in the coming years and for the number of cities affected to grow”.

She highlighted that improvements in liveability thanks to greater stability, better education and healthcare, which have recently occurred in emerging cities, “are under serious threat from an increasingly adverse climate”.

For example, New Delhi and Cairo plunged to 118th and 125th place respectively in the rankings as a result of “poor air quality, undesirable average temperatures and inadequate water provision”.



EXPLAINED: Will Austria ban horse-drawn carriages?

Vienna's Fiaker - the horse-drawn carriages seen across the city's streets for centuries - are popular with tourists, but animal rights advocates say the practice is cruel, particularly as temperatures rise.

EXPLAINED: Will Austria ban horse-drawn carriages?

The image of two horses carrying a carriage full of tourists mesmerised by beautiful Austrian sights is quite a common one, particularly in Vienna.

The Fiaker, which is the Austrian name (borrowed from French) for the set of two horses, plus a carriage and coachman, are quite popular and represent an important part of Viennese history.

The first license for a Fiaker was granted in the capital around 1700. They rose in popularity before the advent of cars in the 1900s.

“They are just as much a part of Vienna as St. Stephen’s Cathedral and the Giant Ferris Wheel: the fiakers”, according to the Vienna Tourist Board.

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Now, though, the symbol for the capital has become the target of controversy. For years, animal rights groups have protested against the overworking of the animals, the stressful conditions for the horses on busy Viennese roads and the extreme heat they face in summer. 

What are the main issues raised?

For years now, several animal rights groups have protested against exploiting the animals for touristic purposes.

By Vienna regulations, the horses need to be out of the streets once temperatures reach 35C. Many groups ask for the limit to be at least 30C instead.

Additionally, the temperature base is measured at the stables, in the mostly shaded areas from where the animals leave every morning to work in Vienna’s first district, where the blazing sun and scorching pavements could make temperatures higher by several degrees.

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Another issue raised by groups is that the fiaker no longer fits in a busy 21st-century capital – with its busy roads and loud cars. They claim that walking among the many vehicles and tourists of the first district is unnecessarily stressful for the horses.

A traditional Fiaker in the Viennese first district. (photo: Amanda Previdelli / The Local)

What do the fiaker associations say?

Many representatives of the organisations reiterate that the animals are well-cared for and used to the heat.

A spokeswoman for the carriage companies asks for a round table with politicians as debates heat up, ORF reported. The veterinarian Isabella Copar, who works for two Fiaker farms, says there is no basis for the 30C regulation.

“I don’t understand that politicians make a judgment on animal welfare, even though they have no idea about the animals”, she told the broadcaster.

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Copar mentions a 2008 study by the Veterinary school of the University of Vienna saying that after nearly 400 measurements on the animals, not a single case of “heat stress” was found.

As for the infamous cases when horses have collapsed in the streets of Vienna during particularly hot days, she states that the collapses are usually due to a horse disease.

It was never possible to establish a connection with the heat. “If this happens in the stable, no one is interested,” the veterinarian said.

What is next?

The latest news in the controversy is a major one. The Health Minister, who is also Animal Protection Minister Johannes Rauch (Greens), has stated he would “welcome” a debate about a Fiaker ban.

“You should think about it, really for animal welfare reasons, whether you should expose a horse to this stress.

According to the minister, there is a question also as to whether the use of the carriages fits in the context of a large city at all. “I think that’s a bit outdated”, he said.

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There is a particular tug of war between the City and the Federal Government regarding whose responsibility it is to act on a possible ban or even tighten the rules.

Both authorities are set to talk about the issue in June. They are set to also speak with the Fiaker associations.

Vienna is unlikely to see a total ban as early as that. Still, a 30C temperature limit after which the horses would need to be sent back to stables could be heading to the capital.