Exemptions "under certain conditions" include items like clown disguises "at cultural events", work wear such as medical masks, and scarves in cold weather, the government says.
The restrictions are aimed at "ensuring the cohesion of society in an open society", it says. Violations will be punished with a fine of up to €150 ($177).
"Acceptance and respect of Austrian values are basic conditions for successful cohabitation between the majority Austrian population and people from third countries living in Austria," Vienna says.
The measures, similar to those in other European Union countries, also apply to visitors even though large numbers of Arab tourists holiday in the Alpine country.
The legislation was brought in by the outgoing centrist government of Chancellor Christian Kern.
Elections on October 15 are expected to see the anti-immigration Freedom Party (FPÖ) come second or third and potentially enter a coalition with Sebastian Kurz of the centre-right.
Kurz, who is only 31, has managed to steal considerable numbers of voters from the FPÖ, polls show, experts say in part due to him moving to the right on issues such as immigration.
"The immigration seen in recent years is changing our country not in a positive but in a negative way," Kurz told German television in an interview broadcast this week.
Other measures to apply from October 1st include immigrants signing an "integration contract" and compulsory courses in the German language and "values".