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Austria’s Islamic kindergartens help create ‘parallel societies’: study

A debate is raging in Austria after a study suggested that Islamic kindergartens in Vienna were helping to create "parallel societies" or even produce the dangerous homegrown radicals of the future.

Austria's Islamic kindergartens help create 'parallel societies': study
A Muslim family walks towards a mosque in Vienna. Photo: Joe Klamar/AFP

According to its author, Ednan Aslan, a Turkish-born Austrian professor at Vienna University, some 10,000 children aged two to six attend around 150 Muslim preschools, teaching the Koran much like Christian ones do with Bible studies.

At least a quarter are backed by groups propagating arch conservative strains of Islam like Salafism, or organizations that see religion not just as a private matter but integral to politics and society, Aslan believes.

“Parents are sending their kids to establishments that ensure they are in a Muslim setting and learn a few suras (chapters from the Koran),” Aslan, a respected researcher into Islamic education, told AFP.

“But they are unaware that they are shutting them off from a multicultural society,” he said.

The study, published last year, has been jumped on by critics of immigration – not least the far-right Freedom Party – in the wake of attacks such as Paris and Brussels perpetrated by Muslims who grew up in Europe.

Undercover

But many reject Aslan's findings, questioning its methodology.

The magazine Biber, which writes for and about minorities, sent a veiled Muslim reporter undercover posing as a mother looking for a place for her son at 14 Muslim kindergartens.

She found no evidence to back up Aslan's suggestions that they were churning out “little Salafists” or that things like the children singing – frowned upon by ultra-strict Muslims – were banned.

But around a third were according to the magazine “problematic”, “cutting off or isolating children” from mainstream society. It also voiced concerns about the “openness” of some staff and the level of German spoken.

Vienna City Hall has since sought to calm the situation by commissioning an in-depth study involving a six-strong research team which will be published later this year.

But the first problem is establishing how many Islamic kindergartens there are. Vienna has 842 registered kindergartens, 100 of them Catholic-run and 13 Protestant, but the number of Muslim ones is not known.

Part of the reason is that there has been an explosion in the number that are privately run, stretching the ability of the authorities to keep tabs and allowing some to operate under the radar.

City of immigrants

Vienna is home to 1.8 million people, half of whom have a parent born abroad or who were born abroad themselves. Ever since it was the capital of a vast empire, it has been a magnet for outsiders, not all of them always welcome.

“But what is new in recent years has been the religious aspect of the debate about integration,” said Thomas Schmidinger, political scientist and Islam specialist at Vienna University.

Austria, a nation of 8.7 million people, has received more than 130,000 asylum applications since 2015 following the onset of the European Union's biggest migration crisis since World War II.

The Freedom Party is riding high in the polls. Surveys suggest that public attitudes to Muslims have hardened. Attacks on migrant shelters soared last year.

The ruling centrist coalition has moved to the right with plans to ban full-face veils in public and oblige migrants to sign an “integration contract”.

Organizations representing Austria's 700,000-strong Muslim population say that in this context, Aslan's flawed report has only fanned the flames.

“This study feeds populism and forces Muslims to justify themselves constantly,” said Murat Gurol from newly created pressure group the Muslim Civil Society Network.

The 45-year-old IT worker said he sent his own son to a Muslim kindergarten in order to learn “the values of solidarity, humanity and responsibility”.

As a child he went to a Christian preschool, and “I don't see why that should be allowed for one religion and not for another”, he told AFP.

By Sophie Makris

For members

MONEY

EXPLAINED: How to make a will in Austria

Making a will can be a daunting process, especially when living overseas. The Local spoke with lawyer Maximilian Harnoncourt to understand more about getting your affairs in order as an international resident in Austria. Here's what you need to know.

EXPLAINED: How to make a will in Austria

Making a will in Austria

Under Austrian law, a will is a legal document that states who should inherit which assets when someone dies.

According to the legal website Erbrecht-ABC, the easiest way to make a will is for someone to write it themselves by hand and then sign it. This is known as eigenhändiges Testament and can be done without the presence of a notary, lawyer or witness.

A will can also be typed (fremdhändiges Testament) but still has to contain, “This is my last will and testament” in handwriting. 

READ ALSO: EXPLAINED: Property buying rules for international residents in Austria

In the case of a typed will, the law states it must be witnessed by three people who then sign the document.

Then there are notarial or judicial wills, although these types of will are rare. 

Any special process to be aware of?

Lawyer Maximilian Harnoncourt, from Schneider & Schneider Rechtsanwalts, said that anyone making a will in Austria should formally register it with a notary or lawyer so that it can be submitted to the Austrian Central Register of Wills

Harnoncourt told The Local: “The advantage of going to a lawyer or a notary is that professionals will make sure that the formal requirements are met and that your will is valid.

“Since lawyers and notaries are obliged to record the will in a register, you have the guarantee that the will is actually taken into account after your death.”

However, it’s worth noting that the Central Register of Wills does not contain actual wills. Instead, a lawyer submits an official record of the creation and filing of the will to ensure that when someone dies, the will can be found.

READ NEXT: Visas and residency permits: How to move to Austria and stay long-term

Can foreigners make a will in Austria?

Under Austrian law, anyone living in the country (even international residents) can make a will.

Harnoncourt said: “In principle, people living in Austria can make a will according to Austrian laws and are treated the same as Austrians.”

But the validity of an Austrian will overseas depends on where the person was living when they died or if there are additional assets to be considered, as Harnoncourt explains.

He said: “Whether a will is valid abroad can only be determined on a case-by-case basis. The question is mostly relevant if you move to another country or if there are assets in another country.

“In principle, in the EU (there are special rules for Denmark and Ireland), a will is also valid in another EU country if it is valid according to the regulations of the country in which it was made.

last will and testament

(Photo by Melinda Gimpel on Unsplash)

“However, you should always seek advice from a lawyer if you have significant assets abroad or if you intend to move your residence to a non-EU country.”

So, is it actually worthwhile for international residents to make a will in Austria?

Harnoncourt says yes – especially if you want to distribute your estate differently to Austrian inheritance laws (more on that below), or if there are special instructions.

He said: “As an international resident you can choose whether Austrian laws or the laws of your citizenship shall apply. For example, to avoid mandatory portions going to children under Austrian laws.”

FOR MEMBERS: Everything you need to know about Austrian inheritance laws

What is Austria’s inheritance law?

In Austria, if a will is not made, the entire estate will go to the heirs due to Austrian succession of inheritance laws.

This means the children (or grandchildren) will inherit two thirds of an estate, while the spouse is eligible for one third. Since 2017, parents are no longer included in forced heirship (known as Pflichtteilsrecht) in Austria.

If there are no heirs or life partner, then the Federal Government handles the estate of the deceased.

Additionally, there is no inheritance tax in Austria, but there is a real estate transfer tax, which is 3.5 percent of the purchase price of a property.

How much does it cost to make a will?

As with most things related to law, making a will is not free. But the costs can vary depending on the type of will made and whether you need legal advice.

The Austrian federal government website states there is a one-time fee of between €300 to €500 to hire a notary and register a will. This covers the cost of advice, professional drafting, filing and registration in the Central Register of Wills.

The cost of filing a will that is handwritten without any legal advice is around €100, plus expenses and sales tax.

The cost of hiring a lawyer to handle a will can vary and there will still be a one-time fee to submit the will into the Central Register of Wills.

Useful vocabulary

Will – das Testament

Inheritance – das Erbe

Notary – der Notar

Lawyer – der Rechtsanwalt

Useful links

Find a notary in Austria at notar.at.

Austrian Bar Association (Österreichischer Rechtsanwaltskammertag)

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