Cameron will meet with Chancellor Werner Faymann in the afternoon, and later with Vice-Chancellor and Minister for Economic Affairs Reinhold Mitterlehner.
Faymann and Cameron will hold a joint press conference shortly after 6pm.
Austria has filed a legal challenge at the European court of justice against EU-granted state subsidies for Britain's planned Hinkley Point C nuclear plant, arguing that it is in breach of European law and risks distorting the energy market.
The heads of state are also likely to discuss the security situation in Europe in the wake of the deadly terror attacks in Paris.
The UK is set to have a referendum by the end of 2017 on whether or not to remain a member of the European Union. British, Irish and Commonwealth citizens over 18 who are resident in the UK, along with UK nationals who have lived overseas for less than 15 years will be able to vote on the referendum.
Cameron has pledged to seek to make changes to the way the European Union works - or at least the rules covering the UK as an EU member.
Among other things he wants recognition that the euro is not the only currency of the EU, to ensure countries outside the eurozone are not materially disadvantaged. He also aims to restrict access to in-work and out-of-work benefits to EU migrants.