The man offered no resistance to the police team, who were called out because the man had a weapon registered in his name.
The doctor whose life he threatened had told the man that he had terminal pancreatic cancer, and would likely live no longer than 12 months, reported the news daily Kronen Zeitung.
The 53-year-old man believed he was seriously ill, and proceeded to set his affairs in order, including making a will.
He then went to another doctor for a second opinion, who told him that his supposed malignant tumour was nothing more serious than an allergic condition. This triggered his threats against the first doctor, which resulted in the armed police response.
The man has been referred for psychiatric treatment.